TOEFL Preparation: Lesson 12 - Surgery

Updated: Apr 29

Target Words 1. anesthesia 2. augment 3. certifiably 4. complication

5. cure 6. implant 7. inject 8. obese 9. procedure 10. scar

Definitions and Samples

1. anesthesia n. Techniques for reducing sensation and feeling, especially to control pain The Civil War was the first American war when anesthesia was widely used in surgery on soldiers. Usage tips Anesthesia and anesthetic are often used interchangeably. Parts of speech anesthetic n, adj

2. augment v. To make bigger or better by adding to In some types of popular cosmetic surgery people augment parts of their bodies. The college augmented its course offerings because students complained that there were too few choices. Parts of speech augmentation n

3. certifiably adv. In a manner that is officially recognized He couldn’t be institutionalized until he was declared certifiably insane. Parts of speech certify v, certification n, certificate n, certifiable adj


4. complication n. A factor that makes something more difficult or complex The surgeons could not easily stop the bleeding because of complications related to the patient’s diabetes. Parts of speech complicate v


5. cure v. To restore to health They say laughter can help cure many illnesses. Parts of speech cure n


6. implant v. To set in firmly; to insert in the body surgically

The actress had cheek implants to make her face look fuller. Parts of speech implantation n


7. inject v. To insert a liquid by means of a syringe The doctor used a needle to inject the medicine slowly into her arm. Parts of speech injection n

8. obese adj. Excessively overweight More Americans are obese now because U.S. culture encourages overeating and discourages exercise. Parts of speech obesity n


9. procedure n. A specific way of performing or doing something The flight attendant explained the emergency evacuation procedure.

Parts of speech proceed v, procedural adj 10. scar n. A mark on the skin left after a wound has healed; a lasting sign of damage, either mental or physical The surgery was successful, but it left a large scar across her abdomen. Parts of speech scar v

TOEFL Prep I

For each word, choose the word or phrase that has the most similar meaning. Write the letter of your choice on the line.

  1. scar _________ (a) bandage (b) mark (c) shine (d) cover

  2. augment ___________ (a) take away (b) discuss (c) use (d) add to

3. complication (a) added difficulty (b) improved performance (c) method of training (d) prediction about results 4. obese

(a) attractive (b) healthy (c) very overweight (d) high

5. cure

(a) heal (b) study (c) diagnose (d) tie up

TOEFL Prep II Circle the word that best completes each sentence.

  1. The (procedure/scar) to prepare for the surgery took four hours.

  2. Only seriously (certifiable/obese) people should get their stomachs surgically reduced.

  3. He almost died during the operation because the doctors did not give him the right kind of (anesthesia/complication).

  4. Doctors are now able to (cure/implant) many types of sickness that were usually fatal in the past.

  5. Before (augmenting/injecting) a painkiller, the dentist rubbed cloves on the woman’s gums to numb them.

TOEFL Success

Read the passage to review the vocabulary you have learned. Answer the questions that follow.

Since 1992, the number of cosmetic surgery procedures has risen 175 percent in the United States. Two of the most popular are liposuction and breast augmentation. In liposuction, the doctor inserts a small tube into the skin that sucks fat from the body. And while it may sound easy, it isn’t. Liposuction is so painful that people are often given anesthesia. What’s more, liposuction is not really a cure for obesity. Rather, it should be used when diet and exercise do not reduce fat in certain “trouble spots.” Another common cosmetic procedure is breast augmentation. In this procedure, an implant is inserted through the armpit, making the breasts appear larger. Breast augmentation usually leaves only a small scar. Some common complications include the effects of anesthesia, infection, swelling, redness, bleeding, and pain. To reduce these risks, consumers are advised to be sure that their surgeon is board-certified.

Bonus Structure— What’s more means “in addition; even more importantly.”

1. Which sentence best expresses the essential information of this passage? a. Cosmetic surgery is dangerous. b. Many people do not have cosmetic surgery because of the pain.

c. Cosmetic surgery is increasing in popularity in the United States.

d. Breast reduction is almost as popular as breast augmentation.

2. In the underlined sentence, trouble spots refer to a. places where people are commonly overweight b. methods of exercise that aren’t effective c. parts of the body where liposuction doesn’t work d. specific areas on the body where fat is hard to minimize

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