Updated: Nov 29, 2022
Target Words 1. assimilate 2. cremation
4. folklore 5. fossilize 6. relic 7. rite 8. ritually
9. saga 10. vestige
Definitions and Samples
1. assimilate v. To consume and incorporate; to become similar Not all of the overseas students could assimilate into the rigidly controlled school. Usage tips Assimilate is often followed by into.
Parts of speech assimilation n
2. cremation n. The act of burning the dead Cremation is particularly common in Japan, where land for burial is very limited. Parts of speech cremate v
3. domesticate v. To make something suitable for being in a home
The Barnes family hoped to domesticate the tiger, but their neighbors were skeptical. Usage tips The object of domesticate is usually a plant or animal.
Parts of speech domestic adj
4. folklore n. Traditional myths of a people transmitted orally
Through folklore, archaeologists have learned about the migration of Native Americans in North America.
Parts of speech folkloric adj
5. fossilize v. To become preserved in clay or stone or ash after death,so that a natural record is left of the original organism; to become rigid and stuck in old ways The dinosaur eggs had fossilized over thousands of years.
Parts of speech fossilization n, fossil n
6. relic n. Something left from a long-ago culture, time period, or person
Relics of the war can still be found in the sand dunes along this shore.
7. rite n. A ceremony meant to achieve a certain purpose Many cultures have fertility rites that supposedly make it more likely for women to bear children.
8. ritually adv. As part of a traditional ceremony or habit The children ritually kissed their parents on the cheek before bed. Parts of speech ritual n, ritual adj
9. saga n. A long story about important events long ago Many American families tell sagas about their ancestors’ arrival in the United States.
10. vestige n. A visible trace that something once existed The wilted flowers were the only vestige of their romantic weekend. TOEFL Prep I
Choose the word from the list that is closest in meaning to the underlined part of each sentence. Write it in the blank. assimilate cremation domesticate folklore ritual 1. In many cultures around the world, young boys are circumcised in a traditional ceremony. 2. It is difficult to tame a bird that was born in the wild. 3. Based on the oral legends about the fire, researchers estimate that about half of the townspeople died in the blaze. 4. After the burning of the body, the remaining bits of bone are transferred to a large urn. 5. Her husband could never fit into her family’s way of life.
TOEFL Prep II
Write the best word next to each definition. Use each word only once. fossilize relic rite saga vestige 1. to harden after death 2. a customary act 3. a memento 4. something remaining from the past
5. a long story
TOEFL Success Read the passage to review the vocabulary you have learned. Answer the questions that follow.
The aborigines of Australia may have been some of the first people on the planet. Recent discoveries of relics, including stone tools, show that humans lived near Penrith, New South Wales, about 47,000 years ago. Australian aborigines migrated from northern lands by sea, when the water passages were narrower than they are today. This is the first evidence of sea travel by prehistoric humans. The saga of this water passing survives in modern-day aboriginal folklore. To put this in perspective, remember that 50,000 years ago, humans were nomadic. Early aborigines did not cultivate crops, and in Australia at the time there were no animals that could be domesticated. No one knows how long it took aboriginal people to reach Australia, but archaeologists are searching through ancient campsites for vestiges of their early lifestyle. Fossilized remains indicate that these nomadic people not only gathered food from the land, but they also subsisted on meat from large animals that no longer exist today. As part of their hunting tradition, aborigines ritually covered themselves in mud to mask their own scent or for camouflage. Aboriginal society marked the major events of life with rites such as circumcision, marriage, and cremation. Older people were revered and cared for as great sources of wisdom. When Westerners arrived in Australia in 1788, the 300,000 aborigines who lived there were not eager to assimilate their ways. In the following years, disease, loss of land, and loss of identity shaped the aborigines’ history perhaps as much as their first prehistoric crossing from the north.
Bonus Structure— To put this in perspective means “to give some background information.”
1. Which sentence best expresses the essential information in this passage? a. Australian aborigines were some of the Earth’s first people.
b. White explorers did not respect aboriginal culture.
c. Australian aborigines probably migrated from Africa.
d. The organization and functioning of aboriginal society is mostly unknown.
2. In this passage, the word ritually is closest in meaning to
a. regularly b. ignorantly c. superstitiously