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TOEFL Preparation: Lesson 18 - War and Conquest

Target Words 1. annex 2. apex 3. collapse

4. conquest

5. devise 6. invasive

7. prevailing

8. resist 9. severely 10. violation

Definitions and Samples

1. annex v. To make something (usually land) part of another unit Bardstown grew by annexing several farms at the north edge of town. Parts of speech annexation n, annex n

2. apex n. The highest point Gregory knew that his running skills had to be at their apex during the tournament. Usage tips Apex is often used to describe the high point of someone’s abilities.

3. collapse v. To fall down, usually because of weakness

The structure collapsed after the heavy rains.

Parts of speech collapse n, collapsible adj 4. conquest n. A takeover by force or continued effort The first recorded conquest of Mt. Everest was by Tensing Norgay and Sir Edmund Hilary. Usage tips Conquest is usually followed by an of phrase. Parts of speech conquer v

5. devise v. To find an original way to make an object or a plan The soldiers devised a way to cross the river into enemy territory without being seen. Parts of speech device n

6. invasive adj. Aggressively entering into someone else’s territory Surgery with a laser is less invasive than surgery with a knife or scalpel. Parts of speech invade v, invasion n, invader n

7. prevailing adj. Strongest or most common The prevailing attitude among our neighbors is to be friendly but not too friendly. Parts of speech prevail v, prevalence n

8. resist v. To refuse to give in to a strong force or desire Although many native nations resisted, the U.S. government eventually took over almost all Indian land.

Parts of speech resistance n, resistant adj

9. severely adv. Harshly; extremely Commanders severely punished any soldier who criticized the battle plan. Parts of speech severity n, severe adj

10. violation n. An action that breaks a law or agreement; mistreatment of something that deserves respect The army’s testing of new weapons was a violation of the cease-fire agreement. The sculptures at Mt. Rushmore may be a violation of sacred Indian land. Usage tips Violation is often followed by an of phrase.

Parts of speech violate v, violator n


Find the word or phrase that is closest in meaning to each word in the left-hand column. 1. severely (a) invent

2. prevailing (b) fall down

3. devise (c) add on 4. collapse (d) extremely

5. annex (e) most common TOEFL Prep II

Circle the word that best completes each sentence.

  1. The judge ruled that Harry was guilty of a (violation/conquest) of the seat-belt law.

  2. Because Dalmatia was protected by high mountains, the empire could not (apex/annex) it.

  3. We have to (conquest/devise) a way to fight this new disease.

  4. Several armed groups joined together to (resist/collapse) the foreign invaders.

  5. The (prevailing/invasive) belief held that the enemy’s peace moves were not sincere.

TOEFL Success

Read the passage to review the vocabulary you have learned. Answer the questions that follow.

The Roman conquest of North Africa is, in the prevailing view, less interesting than Rome’s European adventures. In truth, one of the first lands Rome annexed beyond the Italian peninsula was the area around Carthage in North Africa.

Carthage and Rome had been in conflict (called the Punic Wars) since 264 BCE for control of trade along the Mediterranean coast. In 202 BCE, during the Second Punic War, the Carthaginian general Hannibal devised a clever plan, in violation of most military wisdom, to march through the high Alps to attack the Roman heartland.

The cold weather and steep terrain severely stressed Hannibal’s forces, many of whom rode elephants. The Romans resisted Hannibal’s attacks, and his bold invasion force collapsed. In the end, Rome finished off Carthage in the Third Punic War (149–146 BCE). At its apex in 117 CE, Rome controlled all of North Africa and territories from the Persian Gulf to Britain.

Bonus Structure— In the end introduces the last stage of a long process.

  1. Which sentence best expresses the essential information of this passage?

  2. Romans were very successful at resisting invaders.

  3. Hannibal tried crossing the Alps on elephants to invade Rome.

  4. Rome and Carthage fought three wars, known as the Punic Wars.

  5. One of Rome’s first overseas conquests was of the North African state of Carthage.

  1. The author of this passage believes that Hannibal’s attack on Rome by crossing the Alps was __________. a. not what most military commanders would do b. exactly what the Roman army used to do c. cruel to elephants d. impractical because elephants can’t cross mountains

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