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TOEFL Preparation: Lesson 19 - History

Target Words 1. chronologically

2. coincide 3. consequence 4. core 5. deny 6. diminish

7. longitude

8. milieu 9. Orwellian 10. reconciliation

Definitions and Samples

1. chronologically adv. In order according to time Allen’s book is arranged chronologically, from the First Crusade in 1095 to the fall of Granada in 1492. Usage tips Chronologically is often used with arranged, organized, listed, or some other word for order. Parts of speech chronology n, chronological adj

2. coincide v. Happen or exist at the same time The Viking attacks on western Europe coincided with an abnormally warm period in the Earth’s climate. Usage tips Coincide is often followed by a with phrase. Parts of speech coincidence n, coincidental adj, coincidentally adv

3. consequence n. A result, often one much later in time than the cause

One consequence of global warming may be the flooding of low-lying islands. Usage tips Consequence usually implies something negative or serious about the result. Parts of speech consequent adj, consequently adv

4. core n. an area or object at the center The core of India’s film industry is in Bombay, where all but a few film studios are located. Usage tips Core is often followed by another noun (e.g., core principle) or by an of phrase.

5. deny v. Say that something is not true Movie star Allen Butcher denied that he and the Princess of Denmark were getting married.

Usage tips Deny is often followed by the -ing form of a verb or by a that clause. Parts of speech denial n, deniably adv

6. diminish v. Make something smaller or weaker; become smaller or weaker The Protestant Reformation diminished the power of the Roman Catholic Pope. Mr. Partridge’s influence in the company diminished after he relocated to a branch office.

7. longitude n. A system of imaginary lines running from north to south along the Earth’s surface, where each line is numbered from 0o to 180° west or east The prime meridian, a line running through Greenwich, England, is marked as 0° longitude. Parts of speech longitudinal adj, longitudinally adv

8. milieu n. General environment or surroundings Many Vietnam veterans did not feel comfortable in the antiwar social milieu of the 1970s. 9. Orwellian adj. Frightening and overcontrolled by a government that interferes in nearly every aspect of personal life Biometric devices like eye scanners allow an Orwellian level of government knowledge about everyone’s location.

10. reconciliation n. Coming back together peacefully after having been enemies South Africa avoided a bloodbath after apartheid by setting up a Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Parts of speech reconcile v, reconciliatory adj


Find the word or phrase that is closest in meaning to each word in the left-hand column. 1. deny (a) say something isn’t true 2. chronologically (b) an end to being enemies

3. consequence (c) middle

4. reconciliation (d) in the order in which events happened 5. core (e) result


Circle the word that best completes each sentence. 1. When a nation becomes unwilling to listen to its allies, its international influence will (deny/diminish).

2. The release of many new movies (coincides/consequences) with the start of the holiday period.

3. The (core/milieu) of Roman power shifted to Constantinople after Rome was attacked repeatedly by armies from the north.

4. As our government becomes better at monitoring us, an (Orwellian/coincidental) future awaits us.

5. As you move directly east from one point on the Earth to another, your (longitude/chronology) changes.

TOEFL Success

Read the passage to review the vocabulary you have learned. Answer the questions that follow.

Revisionist history promotes a new view of chronological events, usually for political purposes. Radical revisionists diminish the credibility of a previous view and may even deny that certain events happened at all. Some revisionist Asian historians have ignored long-standing conflicts among native peoples and have explained Asia’s conflicts as a consequence of colonialism and its class-oriented cultural milieu.

Good motives among the revisionists—to promote reconciliation among traditional rivals—don’t excuse bad history. History is valuable only if its stories coincide with verifiable facts. From far away, an observer may see clearly that a given conflict had nothing to do with colonialism and a lot to do with 1,000-year-old rivalries. But this is not likely to matter much to a confirmed revisionist historian. At its core, revisionism—by the government in particular—is an Orwellian exercise in thought control, not honest science.

Bonus Structure— Good motives don’t excuse bad history. Even though revisionists are trying to achieve a good social goal, they shouldn’t distort history to do so.

1. Which sentence best expresses the essential information of this passage?

a. Historians constantly revise history in the light of new facts.

b. Revisionist history is less concerned with accuracy than with promoting a point of view.

c. A new way of studying history, revisionism, has been very successful in Asia.

d. Revisionist history is the only way to accurately relate events.

2. Why does the author of this reading mention Asia?

a. because it offers an example of attempts at revisionist history

b. because a civil war occurred between revisionists and others

c. because it is the birthplace of revisionist history

d. because it was colonized by Europeans and needs a revisionist history

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