Target Words 1. affection
3. bond 4. clique 5. confide 6. exclusive 7. fluctuate 8. in common
9. solidarity 10. willing
Definitions and Samples
1. affection n. An emotional closeness or warmth I show affection for my girlfriend by spending time with her, not by spending money on her. Usage tips Affection is often followed by a for phrase.
Parts of speech affectionate adj
2. associate v. To regularly spend time together
Carol doesn’t associate with people who smoke. Usage tips Associate is often followed by a with phrase.
Parts of speech association n, associate n
3. bond n. A close connection Some researchers say that there is an especially strong emotional bond between twins. Usage tips A between phrase - indicating the things that are connected -often follows bond. Parts of speech bond v
4. clique n. A small group of friends who are unfriendly to people outside the group High-schoolers form cliques to gain security and acceptance. Usage tips Clique indicates a negative feeling toward a group. Parts of speech cliquish adj
5. confide v. To tell very personal things Teenagers are more willing to confide in a friend than in a parent. Usage tips Confide is almost always followed by an in phrase.
Parts of speech confidence n, confidant n, confidential adj
6. exclusive adj. Keeping out all but a few people The most exclusive universities accept only a small percentage of people who want to attend. Usage tips Exclusive can indicate a positive opinion, but in the context of friendship, it can mean “attached only to one person.” Parts of speech exclude v, exclusion n, exclusively adv
7. fluctuate v. To change often, from one condition to another Earth’s climate fluctuates between warm periods and cold periods. Usage tips Fluctuate is usually followed by a between phrase (or by a from . . . to structure). Parts of speech fluctuation n
8. in common adv. As a shared characteristic Billy and Heather have a lot in common - basketball, a love of pizza, and an interest in snakes. Usage tips In common very often appears with the verb to have. 9. solidarity n. Standing together despite pressure to move apart
Many student groups declared solidarity with the Latino Student Association in their effort to get a Spanish-speaking principal.
Usage tips Solidarity is usually used in political contexts.
10. willing adj. Agreeable and ready to do something Because of their long friendship, Professor Gardner was willing to say a few words at Jones’s birthday celebration. Usage tips Willing is almost always followed by a to + verb structure. Parts of speech will v, will n, willingness n
TOEFL Prep I
Find the word or phrase that is closest in meaning to each word in the left-hand column.
1. affection (a) liking someone or something
2. bond (b) to move back and forth 3. clique (c) standing together in a political cause 4. fluctuate (d) a connection
5. solidarity (e) an exclusive group TOEFL Prep II
Circle the word or phrase that best completes each sentence.
1. Charles is (exclusive/willing) to be friends with Dory, but he is already dating another girl.
2. If I (associate/confide) in you, do you promise to keep what I say a secret?
3. When it comes to weather, Minnesota and North Dakota have a lot
(in common/in a bond).
4. One of the main reasons to go to an exclusive college is that you get to (associate/fluctuate) with some of the country’s future leaders.
5. The court said that the club’s membership rules were unjustly (willing/exclusive) because they kept out people of certain ethnic groups.
Read the passage to review the vocabulary you have learned. Answer the questions that follow.
You can walk into any high school and spot the cliques: the jocks hang out here, the geeks there, the Goths and preppies in their areas. Teenagers feel a strong need to belong to a group, to associate with people with whom they share common interests or goals. Since adolescence is often a time when teens feel turmoil in their home lives, they seek affection and friendship outside the home. They look for other young people to bond with when their parents don’t seem to “understand.” Teens going through the various crises of adolescence can more easily confide in others their own age, with whom they have more in common. Teen cliques are by no means exclusive; membership can fluctuate on an almost daily basis, but the important thing is that group members feel a sense of solidarity and are willing to stick together.
1. According to the reading, why do adolescents search for friendship outside the home?
a. They want to be accepted by the jocks and Goths. b. They think their parents don’t understand the problems they face. c. They want to be in a different clique every day. d. They want to talk about their parents with other teenagers.
2. According to the reading, do teens stay in the same groups all the time?
a. Yes, because their parents want them to. b. Yes, because they share common interests. c. No, they may move from group to group quite frequently.
d. No, most groups don’t accept new members.