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TOEFL Preparation: Lesson 7 - Computers

Updated: Aug 5, 2022

Target Words

1. circulate 2. corrode 3. derive 4. detection 5. expeditiously 6. implement 7. innovative 8. installation

9. maintenance 10. simulation

Definitions and Samples

1. circulate v. To move throughout an area or group; to move along a somewhat circular route The gossip circulated quickly through the small town.

Blood circulates more quickly during physical exercise. Usage tips Circulate is often followed by through.

Parts of speech circulation n

2. corrode v. To be slowly weakened by chemical reactions Sitting in salt water, the old coins corroded and became very easy to break. Usage tips A familiar kind of corrosion produces rust, the reddish coating on iron or steel that has been exposed to air and water. Parts of speech corrosion n

3. derive v. To come from, usually through a long, slow process

The Cyrillic alphabet was derived from the Greek alphabet. Usage tips Derive is often followed by from.

Parts of speech derivation n, derivative adj

4. detection n. Discovering something that cannot easily be found

With new medical technology, the detection of cancer is much easier nowadays. Usage tips Detection is often followed by an of phrase.

Parts of speech detect v, detectable adj

5. expeditiously adv. Quickly and efficiently Using carrier pigeons, the military commanders exchanged messages expeditiously. Parts of speech expedite v, expedition n, expeditious adj

6. implement v. To make use of; to carry out Not until after the new software was installed could we implement the new filing system. Parts of speech implement n, implementation n

7. innovative adj. Ahead of the times; novel The innovative use of props and lighting drew many favourable comments. Parts of speech innovation n

8. installation n. Setting something into position for use

Installation of the new software takes only four minutes. Parts of speech install v

9. maintenance n. The act of keeping something in good condition The only problem with living in such a big house is that it requires a lot of maintenance.

Parts of speech maintain v 10. simulation n. An imitation or representation To test car safety, automobile makers study crash simulations. Parts of speech simulate v, simulator n


Circle the most likely meaning of the word part that is shared within each set of words.

1. circulate, circumnavigate, circuit The root circ / circum probably means a. around b. broken c. fair d. straight

2. innovative, novel, renovate

The root nov probably means a. clear b. old c. new d. sweet

3. installation, implement, imprison

The prefix in-/im- probably means a. aside b. behind c. in d. out


Circle the word that best completes each sentence.

  1. Please make sure this information (circulates/derives) throughout the office quickly.

  2. The (installation/simulation) of the new telephones took three days.

  3. In order to stay on schedule, we need to complete this project as (expeditiously / innovatively) as possible.

  4. The smuggler moved cautiously through the airport to avoid (detection/maintenance).

  5. Years of neglect had caused the building’s water pipes to (corrode/implement).

TOEFL Success

Read the passage to review the vocabulary you have learned. Answer the questions that follow.

As dependence on computers increases, so does the need for technical support.

From installation of software to detection of viruses, computers require constant vigilance. Most larger companies find it most expeditious to maintain in-house computer staff.

Many smaller companies, however, can’t fund their own full-time, in-house technical help. Instead, many of them assign the task of computer maintenance to a current employee who may not have any formal training. Rather, these “computer buffs” have derived their skills through practice and self-training. These self-appointed tech specialists, however, often cannot solve bigger problems. What’s more, they may see their office relations corrode when they are swamped with basic user questions that they simply don’t have time to address. For these reasons, many small companies choose to employ a freelance technical assistant who circulates among clients on an as-needed basis. With their professional training, these consultants may propose innovative solutions to users’ unique needs, which could vary from tracking inventory to simulating mechanised processes.

They can implement new programmes, train personnel, and escape the workplace before being asked, “How can I cut this file and paste it somewhere else?”

1. Which sentence best expresses the essential information of this passage?

  1. Larger companies are better off using freelance technical consultants.

  2. Computer maintenance and troubleshooting cuts into employee productivity.

  3. Self-trained technical support personnel are often as effective as trained professionals.

  4. Smaller companies may benefit from hiring occasional technical support.

2. The article implies that the question, "How do I cut and paste a file?" is ...

a. too basic to require professional attention b. a good question to give to in-house tech support

c. appropriate for a freelancer to address d. a good topic for a training program

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